LIMBAH PENCUCIAN BAUKSIT SEBAGAI SUMBER UNSUR TANAH JARANG POTENSIAL; STUDI KASUS PULAU SELAYAR, PROVINSI KEPULAUAN RIAU

Ronaldo Irzon

Abstract


Bauksit dihasilkan dari proses pelapukan batuan kaya mineral alkali, telah mulai dieksploitasi di Pulau Selayar, wilayah Kabupaten Lingga, Provinsi Kepulauan Riau yang menjadi lokasi penelitian ini. Sumber daya aluminium di daerah ini tergolong ke dalam kelompok laterit-bauksit, karena terbentuk akibat proses pelapukan dan belum pernah ditemukan keterdapatan karst. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perbandingan kadar dan karakter unsur tanah jarang pada beberapa jenis conto dari lokasi tambang bauksit di Sembuang, Pulau Selayar. Selain itu, juga bertujuan untuk mengetahui jenis mineral dan jenis bijih bauksit. Perangkat analisis pada studi ini adalah ICP-MS, XRF, dan XRD dari Laoratorium Geologi – Pusat Survei Geologi yang secara berturut-turut dimanfaatkan untuk mengetahui kelimpahan unsur tanah jarang, kadar oksida utama, dan jenis mineral lempung pada contoh. Gibsit terdeteksi sebagai mineral alumina utama dan menjadi petunjuk bahwa proses bauksitisasi berlangsung pada kondisi tropis. Walaupun batuan yang berada di stockpile dapat dikategorikan sebagai bauksit, namun belum memiliki kadar alumina ekonomis. Meski terindikasi lebih tinggi dari pada lima conto lainnya, kadar UTJ pada bauksit hasil pencucian berada dalam tingkat menengah. Namun, karakteristik konsentrasi Cerium (Ce) yang tinggi, sebagai bahan buangan di atas permukaan, dengan tekstur yang lunak, dan luas bidang permukaan yang besar dapat dijadikan pijakan bahwa sisa pencucian layak diproses dalam pemurnian unsur Cerium menjadi material ekonomis. Berdasarkan data anomali positif unsur Ce, hampir seluruh conto telah mengalami proses oksidasi. Komposisi plagioklas terhadap mineral lain pada conto bauksit di stockpile, sangat mungkin telah menurun kibat proses pencucian dan penyaringan berdasarkan pada anomali negatif unsur Europium (Eu), sedangkan conto lain justru menunjukkan anomali positif.


Keywords


bauksit; sisa pencucian; sumber cerium; UTJ

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